Over the course of the 1800s, Britain underwent such significant social changes that by the close of the century, both the country’s cultural and physical landscape were almost unrecognisable. The Royal Academy remained the key institution for the training of artists and the subsequent display of their works. The century began with John Constable and JMW Turner dominating British art and celebrating the beauty and drama of the English countryside and coastline. However as time progressed, rebellious groups such as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood challenged the conventions of image-making, both in terms of concept and technique. This was also the era of towering Victorian Academic artists including Lord Leighton. Revivals in the Gothic style affected not just architecture but also sculpture and key figures such as John Ruskin and William Morris encouraged a total rejection of industrial mass-production. The Arts & Crafts Movement was one aspect of this attitude.