The early 20th Century witnessed seismic changes in art; both in terms of subject matter and the manner in which practitioners worked. Artists including Henri Matisse and the Fauves took to the extreme the achievements of painters in the second half of the previous century. Other movements, including Cubism, responded to scientific and technological advancements such as the rise of photography, reacting against the realism this process could achieve. This era was also marked by political upheavals including two World Wars, the catastrophes of which caused artists to respond in a very personal way to subjects not visible to the naked eye such as the human psyche, evident in Expressionism and Surrealism. Further developments included the influence of non-Western art on European artists, bringing to painting and sculpture a new vitality not previously witnessed in art history. This course will look in-depth at the key figures and styles which dominated European art in the first half of the 1900s and consider how their efforts would ultimately transform art on a global level.